Milling operations- horizontal milling

Milling operation

Milling machines were first invented and developed by Eli Whitney to mass
produce interchangeable musket parts. Although crude, these machines
assisted man in maintaining accuracy and uniformity while duplicating parts
that could not be manufactured with the use of a file.
Development and improvements of the milling machine and components
continued, which resulted in the manufacturing of heavier arbors and high-speed steel and carbide cutters. These components allowed the operator to
remove metal faster, and with more accuracy, than previous machines.
Variations of milling machines were also developed to perform special
milling operations. During this era, computerized machines have been
developed to alleviate errors and provide better quality in the finished
product.

• Cutting speed, V = πDN
– D is the cutter diameter
• Material removal rate, MRR = fNdadr = Fdadr
– da is the axial depth of cut
– dr is the radial depth of cut
– f is the feed per revolution (= ftNt ; ft is the feed per cutting edge/tooth
and Nt is the number of teeth)
– F is the feed rate (in/min or mm/min)
• Cutting power, Pc = ucMRR
• Machining time, tm = (L + lc)/F
– lc is the length of the cutter’s first contact with the workpiece

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