Classification of gears can be done according to a relative position of the axes of revolution into three types.
They are: In the transmission of motion or power between two shafts. The effect of slipping is to reduce the velocity ratio of the system. In precision machines, in which a definite velocity ratio is of importance (as in the watch mechanism), the only positive drive is by gears.
1. Gears for Parallel shafts
1.1 Spur Gears
1.2 Helical Gears
1.3 Herringbone Gears
1.4 Rack and Pinion
2. Gears for Intersecting Shafts
2.1 Straight Bevel Gears
2.2 Spiral Bevel Gears
3. Gears for Skew Shafts
3.1 Hypoid Gears
3.2 Worm Gears
Classification of these types of gears discussed below.
1. Gears for Parallel Shafts:
The motion between parallel shafts is the same as the rolling of two cylinders. Gears under this category are the following:
1.1 Spur Gears:
Straight Spur gears are the simplest form of gears having teeth parallel to the gear axis. The contact of two teeth takes place over the entire width along a line parallel to the axes of rotation. As gear rotate, the line of contact goes on shifting parallel to the shaft.
1.2 Helical Gears:
In helical gear, teeth are part of the helix instead of straight across the gear parallel to the axis. The mating gears will have the same helix angle but in opposite direction for proper matting. As the gear rotates, the contact shifts along the line of contact in volute helicoid across the teeth.
1.3. Herringbone Gears:
Herringbone gears are also known as Double Helical Gears. Herringbone gears are made of two helical gears with opposite helix angles, which can be up to 45 degrees.
1.4. Rack and Pinion:
In these gears, the spur rack can be considered to be spur gear of infinite pitch radius with its axis of rotation placed at infinity parallel to that of the pinion. The pinion rotates while the rack translates.
Rack and Pinion
2. Gears for Intersecting Shafts:
The motion between two intersecting shafts is equivalent to the rolling of two cones. The gears used for intersecting shafts are called bevel gears. Gears under this category are following:
2.1 Straight Bevel Gears:
Straight bevel gears are provided with straight teeth, radial to the point of intersection of the shaft axes, and vary in cross-section through the length inside the generator of the cone. Straight Bevel Gears can be seen as a modified version of straight spur gears in which teeth are made in a conical direction instead of parallel to the axis.
Straight Bevel Gears
2.2 Spiral Bevel Gears:
Bevel gears are made with their teeth are inclined at an angle to face of the bevel. Spiral gears are also known as helical bevels.
Spiral Bevel Gears
3. Gears for Skew Shafts:
The following gears are used to join two non-parallel and non-intersecting shafts.
3.1 Hypoid Gears:
The Hypoid Gears are made of the frusta of hyperboloids of revolution. Two matching hypoid gears are made by revolving the same line of contact, these gears are not interchangeable.
3.2 Worm Gears:
The Worm Gears are used to connect skewed shafts, but not necessarily at right angles. Teeth on worm gear are cut continuously like the threads on a screw. The gear meshing with the worm gear is known as worm wheel and the combination is known as worm and worm wheel.
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