Types of Stress and Strain (Tensile, Compressive, Young’s Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity)

 

Types of Stress and Strain

Tensile Stress and Strain:-

When a body is subjected to two equal and opposite axial pulls, as a result of which the body tends to extend to decrease its length, the stress and strain-induced are known as tensile stress and tensile strain.

Compressive Stress and Strain:- 

When a body is subjected to two equal and opposite axial pushes, as a result of which the body tends to decrease its length, the stress and strain-induced are known as compressive stress and compressive strain.

Young’s Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity:-

Hooke’s law state that when a material is loaded within the elastic limit, the stress is directly proportional to strain, i.e.

  σ α ε  ⇒   σ = E.ε     or    E = σ / ε  = P x l / A x ∂l

Where E is a constant of proportionally and is known as Young’s Modulus or Modulus of elasticity.

Shear Stress and Strain:-

When a body is subjected to two equal and opposite forces, acting tangentially across the resisting section, as a result of which the body tends to shear off the section, then the stress-induced is called shear stress. The corresponding strain is known as shear strain and it is measured by the angular deformation accompanying the shear stress.

Shear Modulus or Modulus of Rigidity:-

It has been found experimentally that within the elastic limit, the shear stress is directly proportional to the shear strain.

Mathematically,…

ℑ α Φ   or  ℑ = C.Φ     or  ℑ/Φ = C

Where,  ℑ= Shear stress;  Φ= Shear strain,  and C= Constant of proportionally, known as a shear modulus to shear modulus or modulus of rigidity. It is also denoted by  N or G.

 

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